When `^?`

returns `Nothing`

, it is often desired to know why.

Let's define a `^??`

operator which returns an `Either`

instead of a `Maybe`

:

```
newtype ConstEither e r a = ConstEither { getConstEither :: Either e r }
deriving Functor
infixl 8 ^??
(^??) :: s -> LensLike' (ConstEither e a) s a -> Either e a
^?? f = f (ConstEither . Right) whole & getConstEither whole
```

The standard optics (`Traversal`

, `Prism`

, etc) do not work with our new combinator, so let's see how we can define ones which would.

`Traversal s t a b`

is `forall f. Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> s -> f t`

and it uses `f`

's `pure`

in the empty case, so we'll replace the `Applicative`

with a verbose variant which supplies error information in the empty case:

```
class Apply f => VerboseApplicative e f where
vpure :: e -> a -> f a
type VerboseTraversal e s t a b =
forall f.
VerboseApplicative e f =>
LensLike f s t a b
type VerbosePrism e s t a b =
forall p f.
Choice p, VerboseApplicative e f) =>
(Optic p f s t a b
type VerboseTraversal' e s a = VerboseTraversal e s s a a
type VerbosePrism' e s a = VerbosePrism e s s a a
-- Verbose optics support for (^.) and (^..)
instance Monoid r => VerboseApplicative e (Const r) where
= pure
vpure _
-- Verbose optics support for `preview`, aka (#)
instance VerboseApplicative e Identity where
= pure
vpure _
-- Verbose optics support for our (^??)
instance Apply (ConstEither e r) where
ConstEither x <.> _ = ConstEither x
instance e ~ e' => VerboseApplicative e (ConstEither e' r) where
= ConstEither (Left e) vpure e _
```

Now we may want an operator to transform optics into verbose optics:

```
-- Given an error message constructor, turns:
-- * Traversal to VerboseTraversal
-- * Prism to VerbosePrism
verbose ::
Profunctor p, VerboseApplicative e f) =>
(-> e) ->
(t Optic p (Lift f) s t a b ->
Optic p f s t a b
=
verbose e t . t . rmap Other
rmap f where
Other r) = r
f (Pure r) = vpure (e r) r
f (
-- A fixed variant of transformers:Control.Applicative.Lift -
-- Turns an Apply to an Applicative
-- (transformer's versions Applicative instance requires Applicative f)
data Lift f a = Pure a | Other (f a)
deriving Functor
instance Apply f => Applicative (Lift f) where
pure = Pure
Pure f <*> Pure x = Pure (f x)
Pure f <*> Other x = Other (f <$> x)
Other f <*> Pure x = Other (f <&> ($ x))
Other f <*> Other x = Other (liftF2 ($) f x)
```

Note that I haven't found how to make `verbose`

also turn a `Fold`

to a verbose variant.

To see our verbose optics in action we'll make some verbose variants of optics from `lens-aeson`

:

```
type Err = String
v_Value :: (AsValue t, Show t) => VerbosePrism' Err t Value
= verbose (\x -> "Doesn't parse as JSON: " <> show x) _Value
v_Value
v_Double :: (ToJSON t, AsNumber t) => VerbosePrism' Err t Double
= verbose (expectJson "number") _Double
v_Double
vnth :: (ToJSON t, AsValue t) => Int -> VerboseTraversal' Err t Value
= verbose (expectJson ("item at index " <> show i)) (nth i)
vnth i
expectJson :: ToJSON a => String -> a -> Err
=
expectJson e x "Expected " <> e <> " but found " <>
Data.ByteString.Lazy.Char8.unpack (encode x)
```

Now let's see they work:

```
# Verbose traversals can work like regular traversals
> "[1, \"x\"]" ^? _Value . nth 0 . _Double
Just 1.0
> "[1, \"x\"]" ^? v_Value . vnth 0 . v_Double
Just 1.0
> "[1, \"x\"]" ^? v_Value . vnth 1 . v_Double
Nothing
# But using ^?? rather than ^? we can also get error info
> "[1, \"x\"]" ^?? v_Value . vnth 0 . v_Double
Right 1.0
> "[1, \"x\"]" ^?? v_Value . vnth 1 . v_Double
Left "Expected number but found \"x\""
> "[1, \"x\"]" ^?? v_Value . vnth 2 . v_Double
Left "Expected item at index 2 but found [1,\"x\"]"
> "hello" ^?? v_Value . v_Double
Left "Doesn't parse as JSON: \"hello\""
```

## Notes

In the previous post's discussion, `lens`

's creator Edward Kmett noted that in `lens`

's early days they experimented with a different formulation of error-reporting optics that placed the extra information in `Optic p f s t a b`

's `p`

rather than `f`

, but that with that formulation they ran into problems with inference and that this new formulation may work better.

## Request for feedback

- Do you have use cases for this? If so, do you think that this should belong in
`lens`

? - Should it belong in a separate package? Perhaps along with the previous posts'
`Prism`

combinators and with additional optics like inverted`Prism`

s and partial`Iso`

s? - Any code suggestions or improvements?

Discussion